According to a new study by three Ohio State University economists, new state laws requiring the collection of sales tax on online purchases has only affected Amazon, resulting in a reduction of expenditures in these states of 9.5%. Further, the decline in Amazon purchases resulted in a 2% boost in purchases at local brick-and-mortar stores.

The Institute for Local Self-Reliance asserts that Amazon’s dominance in the retail marketplace is largely due to their exemption from collecting sales tax, but this is changing as more states adopt laws that subject Amazon to the same tax rules local retailers must follow.